"Direct cell entry of gold/iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles in adenovirus mediated gene delivery."
Kamei K, Mukai Y, Kojima H, Yoshikawa T, Yoshikawa M, Kiyohara G, Yamamoto TA, Yoshioka Y,
Okada N, Seino S, Nakagawa S
Biomaterials. 2009 Mar;30(9):1809-14.
Gold/iron-oxide MAgnetic Nanoparticles (GoldMAN) imparts useful magnetic properties to various biomolecules. Gold nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles allow for the conjugation of biomolecules via an Au-S bond. Here, we present a practical application by utilizing GoldMAN and a magnetic field to induce intracellular transduction. This method has great potential for application of the adenovirus gene delivery vector (Ad), widely used for in vitro/in vivo gene transfer, to Ad-resistant cells. We demonstrated that Ad was easily immobilized on GoldMAN and the Ad/GoldMAN complex was introduced into the cell by the magnetic field, which increased gene expression over 1000 times that of Ad alone. The GoldMAN penetrated the plasma membrane directly, independent of the cell-surface virus receptors and endocytosis pathway. This mechanism will contribute to improve the gene expression efficiency of Ad. This technology is a useful tool for extending Ad tropism and enhancing transduction efficiency. GoldMAN also makes possible the effective use of various biomolecules within the cell because of its interesting cell-entry mechanism.