"The use of a mutant TNF-alpha as a vaccine adjuvant for the induction of mucosal immune responses."
Kayamuro H, Abe Y, Yoshioka Y, Katayama K, Nomura T, Yoshida T, Yamashita K, Yoshikawa T, Kawai Y, Mayumi T, Hiroi T, Itoh N, Nagano K, Kamada H, Tsunoda S, Tsutsumi Y
Biomaterials. 2009 Oct;30(29):5869-76.
Safe and potent adjuvants are required in order to establish effective mucosal vaccines. Cytokines are promising adjuvants because they are human-derived safe biomaterial and display immune-modulating functions. We have created a mutant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), mTNF-K90R, that exhibits high bioactivity and resistance to proteases. Here, we examined the potential of mTNF-K90R as a mucosal adjuvant. Initially, we showed that intranasal co-administration of mTNF-K90R with ovalbumin (OVA) potently produced OVA-specific Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies (Abs) in serum and IgA Abs both at local and distal mucosal sites compared to co-administration with wild-type TNF-alpha. The OVA-specific immune response was characterized by high levels of serum IgG1 and increased production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-10 from splenocytes of immunized mice, suggesting a Th2 response. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with an antigen from influenza virus plus mTNF-K90R exhibited mucosal adjuvant activity for induction of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Importantly, histopathological examination of the nasal tissue of mTNF-K90R treated mice detected no signs of toxicity. These findings suggest that mTNF-K90R is safe and effective mucosal adjuvant and this system may have potential application as a universal mucosal adjuvant system for mucosal vaccines improving the immune response to a variety of viral antigens.